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Old Abe and Clem, Famous Morgan Horses of the civil war

Old Abe and Clem

“I celebrated my nineteenth birthday” Joe Allen said to the editor of The (Atchison Kansas Daily) Globe, “by enlisting in the First Vermont Cavalry. We were in the Shenandoah Valley, under Sheilds, in the spring of 1862, but Banks was our commander then Stonewall Jackson drove us across the Potomac, and into Maryland. Then Jackson fell back, and we followed him to Port Royal, where we merged into Pope’s army, and suffered defeat with him at the second battle of Bull Run.

We were driven back almost to the fortifications of Washington, and saw the awful confusion of a fleeing army. The rear of an army, successful in battle at the front, is a scene of awful confusion, but the mob in the rear of Pope’s army at the second Bull Run was worse than a stampede of wild animals.

“When McClellan succeeded to the commands, I was on picket duty with my regiment at Drainsville, twenty miles from Washington, where we spent the winter. In the spring we moved to the front, and became part of Burnsides’ army at Fredericksburg. After that battle, where Burnside was badly whipped, Lee moved his army up the Rappahannock Valley. We followed, on the other side of the mountains, and when Lee crossed the Potomac at Williamsport and thereabouts, we crossed somewhere below Harpers Ferry, and marched almost night and day trying to head him off.

“Early one morning (June 30, 1863) we made a halt in the streets of Hanover, Pennsylvania, and were sitting on the curbstones eating the bread and meat the citizens brought us, when suddenly a battery of rebel artillery began firing at us. Before we had time to recover from our surprise, Wade Hampton’s cavalry dashed in upon us. There was a sharp fight nearly all day, but we held the town, and finally chased Hampton’s men off.

“The next day we started to join Meade’s army at Gettysburg. My impression is that we marched thirty miles beyond Gettysburg, and then marched back again, following Hampton’s Calvary. There was impression among the men that a big fight was to take place soon, but we had no idea where.

“Our corps approached Gettysburg on three different roads. I was in the middle column, and first intimation of a fight I had was encountering a field hospital, where there were two or three hundred wounded. It happened that we arrived on the battlefield of Gettysburg in the evening of the second day’s fighting, so I never saw the town of Gettysburg at all.

“We were at once moved to the right wing of Meade’s army, and when we arrived there, we struck Lee’s left wing. There was a fight lasting until 11 o’clock at night, when the rebels retired. Then we moved to the extreme left of our army, a distance of twelve miles, arriving there about daybreak, just as the third day’s fighting was commencing. We were immediately ordered to charge, and carry a line of hills, which we did, and took a position in advance of our main line. We remained there skirmishing until 4 o’clock in the afternoon, when word passed along that there was to be a charge.

“Little Round Top was almost behind us, and we charged away from it. There was a Texas regiment in front of us, lying behind a stone fence, and we charged toward it, accompanied by three or four regiments of infantry. The firing was terrific, and the infantry wavered, causing a delay of the cavalry. We started at almost the same instant that Pickett charged, and I have an idea that our charge was to draw off as many rebels as possible from the attack on Little Round top.

During the delay I have spoken of, the First Vermont Calvary was left almost alone in the exposed position, when Kilpatrick, the division commander, rode up, and had some sharp words with Farnsworth, the brigade commander, who was leading us. I could not hear what was said, but I heard afterward that Farnsworth protested against the hopelessness of the charge, saying that the First Vermont Calvary after was cut to pieces already, and they were too good men to sacrifice. Farnsworth said he would lead the charge, but Kirkpatrick must take the responsibility and then came the order forward.

“We rode at a full gallop toward the stone fence; behind which was the Texas regiment was lying. They had ceased firing, and we knew they were waiting to pick us off at closer range. Our men tried to set up a cheer as we rode toward the fence at a furious pace, but we could not do it; we were so wrought up from expecting the volley at close range.

I saw the first man that fired, a young fellow on the right, and I heard an officer curse him for firing too soon. A second later came the volley, but nearly every bullet went over our heads, as we were charging up the hill. Then there was a cloud of smoke, and rapid musket firing. For a moment we came to a halt, within a few feet of us the stone fence, while some of our men in advance tore it down, and it is a wonder that we were not all killed, but the smoke was too thick that the rebels could not take accurate aim.

“Our men had only revolvers, and it seemed to me that there were twenty musket shots to o our one. I fired five times at a bunch of rebel infantry ahead of me, but did not pick out a particular one, and do not know that I hit any of them. Finally, I saw some of our men urging their horses through an opening in the stone wall, and I followed them. In five minutes we lost sixty-five out of 312 men; every time a man near me was hit, I could hear the ‘pat’ of the bullet. I saw several of my companions cringe and start when hit and a frightened look came to their faces. A young fellow I had known all my life was struck, and he was riding so close to me that he fell over on my horse’s neck. I straightened him up in his saddle, and told him to hold on as long as he could, but he fell off the other side. His place in the ranks was on my right, and his horse remained at my side throughout the charge.

I had a pistol and a sabre; I fired the pistol as fast as I could, but I doubt if we killed half a dozen of the rebels altogether. They stood behind trees and rocks, and fired at us with deliberation and care. I chased one fellow who appeared in front of me, intending to cut him down with my sabre, but he ran, and I hurried on to join my companions. As I id so, I saw the fellow spring out from the tree where he had taken refuge, and fire at use. There was the greatest confusion, but I heard his shot, and the pat of the bullet; he fired at me and struck my horse in the neck. The horse was a big bay I had ridden ever since my enlistment, but he kept going, and I supposed the wound was not serious, although it bled freely.

“We were gone an hour on that charge. We had passed through the enemies’ lines, and were in their rear, and were compelled to cut through two hostile lines to reach our own. We kept swinging to the right, and once we were between two lines, and I could liken it to nothing but getting into a nest of hornets. It was while we were between the two rebel lines, riding at full gallop, that someone told me that General Farnsworth had fallen off his horse, and we learned afterwards that he had been killed.

“We rode at full gallop while in this perilous situation, and could locate the rebel lines by puffs of smoke. It was like running the gauntlet. A clump of trees ahead of us would look quiet and peaceful until we came opposite to it, when out would come the puffs of smoke.

“A friend of mine named Marv. Mason, who rode ahead of me, had his horse shot under him. The horse fell dead, with its nose in the ground, but Marv. Went on over its head and struck on his feet. He did not stop an instant, and kept up with the regiment on foot until he caught a horse, which he mounted, and rode safely into our lines.

“During the skedaddle, a man rode by me with his leg shot off by a cannon ball. Just above the stump some one had tied the sleeve of a coat, to stop the bleeding. I had never seen the before, and I never heard what became of him. I have often wondered who tied up his leg, and helped him on another horse, for his own must have been killed.

“At last we reached our old position, when we heard that Pickett’s charge had failed. We remained quiet until dark, everything indicating that the battle was over, when we were ordered to move under the hill, where we dismounted in a meadow, and told to get some sleep. The heaviest rain I have ever experienced was falling, and the meadow was a sheet of water. I found three rails, which kept me out of the water, and I never slept better in my life. I saw soldiers sleeping soundly that night who were half covered with running water.

“At 4 ‘O’clock in the morning we were routed out, and ordered to saddle at once. Then I discovered that my horse was too badly wounded to go; he was very stiff and could not get up. He was a great favorite in my company, as he was a particularly reliable animal, and there were many expressions of regret when I was compelled to leave old Abe behind. But there were plenty of other horses without riders, as a result of the charge the day before, and we were soon on the move. When we rode away, old Abe was still lying down, and I had no idea if he would ever get up again.

“I don’t know how we heard it, but we knew we were going in pursuit of Longstreet’s corp train, and we hurried all day toward Emmitsburg, without catching sight of an enemy. Just before night we halted for a short time, and while I was boiling a cup of coffee, I hear a cheer from some of our men, and who should come staggering into camp, but old Abe! He had followed us all day, and was just getting in. The men gathered around him, and some fed him crackers, while others bathed his wound, and did what they could for it.

“When the bugle sounded to fall in, old Abe tottered to his place in the column, but we soon started on a keen run, and left him behind. I looked back and saw him standing, gazing after us. I looked again, and he was hobbling along the road we had taken.

“In half an hour we struck the rear guard of Longstreet’s corps train, just as it was starting up the mountains. The night was dark as pitch, but we fought our way up that mountain, until break of day. Three Michigan regiments dismounted and crowded along the narrow road. Our regiment was next to charge through and stampede the train as soon as we found an opening.

“I never saw such another display of fireworks as I saw through that night. Our men toiled up the mountain, firing as fast as they could, and the rebels fell back firing as fast as they could. Just a break of day we reached a level spot on top of the mountains, probably fifteen acres, where there was a summer hotel. Here we cut our way through the rear guard and took after the wagon train.

“There were two pikes leading down the mountain, and the wagon train divided; we took the Smithburg pike, to head off and capture the wagons. The mules attached to the wagons were running away down the hill, but we had to go by them, which we did, yelling and firing our pistols. The train we were after was two miles long, and I saw twenty wagons go over the bank into the gulch below. The wagons were mostly loaded with wounded, and the scene made the stoutest heart sick. As we tore along, we could hear the cries of the wounded in the wagons; some of them were looking out, and a few of them jumped, knowing that the mules were running away, down the hill. Many of the drivers were killed by our men; others deserted their teams, and the scene was frightful. But we finally got ahead of the train, and stopped it. Then we went to burning wagons and killing the mules, except a few of the best, which were saved. The wounded were carried to the side of the road, but we had no time to look after them.

“We halted there possibly three hours, during the time hearing that the other train and 5,000 prisoners had been captured; and just before we started on again, old Abe came walking into camp! How he discovered that we had gone down the Smithburg pike, I cannot image, but there he was, and he took his place among the horses of my company. He had probably seen the fighting all through the night before, and followed his command through the woods when it must have seemed to him that every limb on the trees was shooting fire. He was not far away when the charge took place at the top of the mountain, and when we decided to follow Smithburg pike down the mountain; he must have seen sights and heard sounds that were the most terrible in the history of the war. But he came along, and passed the entire train while the wagons were being burned, the wounded jumped out, and mules killed, until he found his old friends of the First Vermont. His story came to be noised about, and dozens of men from other regiments came up to look at him, all of whom had kindly suggestions.

“At the end of four hours we were off again, and that night was at Hagerstown. I heard cheering a half mile away, and knew it was old Abe coming in. I rode over that way, and met him. He followed me to our camp, where I fed and watered him. He seemed to be getting better, but was very stiff in the neck.

“At midnight we hurried on again, leaving old Abe lying down. We were on our way to Williamsport, to burn a lot of pontoon bridges on the Potomac, and there was no long halt for several days, but whenever we stopped to rest, and snatch a bit of sleep or a mouthful of food old Abe would come in on us. Some times he would strike the pickets a mile from his regiment, but he always found his way to us with unerring certainty.

“The rebel cavalry knew we were headed for Williamsport, and knew what we were up to, and followed us. There was fighting almost every hour of the day, and half the time old Abe must have been among the enemy; he certainly came through their camp every time he found us, for we were traveling the same road, and we were in advance. But old Abe knew which crowd he belonged with, and managed to find us every night.

“Every day he got a little earlier, and for a while in the morning would travel by my side in the column, but we were making a forced march, and he would soon drop out. He was known as the “First Vermont Straggler,” and every day the soldiers of other commands would call out to us to know how old Abe was coming on, to which we replied he was coming on very well and would surely be in at the surrender.

“One night we halted at 11 o’clock for four hours, and when I awoke I was worrying because old Abe had not arrived. But when I mentioned the matter, it happened to be a soldier who had been on picket duty, and he said old Abe came along the road within ten minutes after he took his place and had spent two hours with him eating crackers out of his knapsack. Old Abe was becoming a good deal of a vagrant, and would loaf with any one of our command, although when I went out to saddle, he was among our horses.

“I think he kept with us after that, usually marching by my side, though he would break ranks occasionally and go after water, or nibble grass. Finally, at the end of the seventh or eighth day, I put my saddle on old Abe’s honest back once more, and rode him until I was mustered out as one of Sheridan’s cavalry.

“I quit the service at the end of three years, and when I left camp for good, I saw a recruit riding old Abe, and the recruit was being congratulated on having fallen heir to about the best horse in the service.”

Source; Undated news clippng from the Atchison (Kansas) Daily Globe, circa 1918

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Clifton, famous Morgan horse of the civil war

Clifton AMHR No. 457 is one of the few Morgans which has been documented by name as having served in the civil war. A son of Hale’s Green Mountain Morgan out of a chestnut mare by Gifford Morgan, Clifton was a bright chestnut stallion about 14.1 hands high and weighed 960 pounds. Foaled in 1852, he was bred by William Bellows of Walpole, NH.

At three moths of age, he was sold to Silas Hale, South Royalston, Ma., thence to S.H. Edgerly, Manchester, NH. at eighteen months. He was resold soon after to F.H. Lyford, who owned him until at least 1857. While owned in New England, Clifton won a walking match against young Morrill by a long distance. Clifton’s owner wrote the following lines about this:

“When Clifton arrived on the track; And waived his flaming tail, Mongrels and Morrills lagged behind, And in the distance trail”

– from “The greatest of Morgan Sires” by Allen W. Thompsom

Between this match race and the beginning of the Civil War, Clifton was apparently sold by F.H. Lyford to William R Capehart of North Carolina. Capehart was attending medical school in Virginia at the start of the Civil War. He enlisted in General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia of the confederate forces as a surgeon. He was attached to Wade Hampton’s cavalry.

“One of the best -bred Morgans that saw service in the war was Clifton, foaled at Walpole, New Hampshire, and ridden by W.R. Capehart of North Carolina until 1864, when the noble animal met a war-horse’s death in a cavalry engagement…..”

– from “Morgan in the Cavalry” by “Old Timer” (1911)

“Was foaled 1852, the property of Wm. Bellows, Esq., of Walpole, NH. Sired by Green Mountain 2nd [i.e., Hale’s Green Mountain Morgan], g sire, Gifford, g g sire, Woodbury, g g g sire, Justin Morgan. Dam, a chestnut, sired by Gifford, g dam by Sherman. Clifton is 14 1/4 hands high, and weighs 960 pounds. His color is a bright chestnut. At three months old Mr. Bellows sold him to Silas Hale, of South Royalston Mass. At eighteen moths old, Mr. Hale sold him to S.H. Edgerly, Esq., of Manchester NH., who shortly after sold him to F.H. Lyford, Esq., whose property he still remains. Clifton is a bold-looking active and muscular horse, and in many respects resembles his celebrated sire.”

– from D.C. Linsley’s Morgan Horse’s, 1857

“…..In September, 1857, at Manchester, NH., he was matched to walk five miles with young Morrill, and won in one hour, two minutes, 46 seconds, the only walking match then on record. Ridden by Dr. W.R. Capehart, North Carolina, through the war. Killed at cavalry fight …….near Cheraw, SC., 1864…..”

– Battell’s Morgan Horse and Register, volume I

After the war Dr. Capehart owned harness racing horses, but no documentation was found that would indicate that he owned many Morgan horses other than Clifton.

Compiled by Elizabeth A. Curler

Historical research in North Carolina by Ina Ish has made the above information on Clifton and Dr. Capehart more complete.

lawn jockeys

Colonel Rush’s Lancers


Lt. Col. C.F. Ruff

Philadelphia, Pa.

August 12, 1861

“Relative to the price paid for horses for Col. Rush’s Regt. thinks the $120 horses are not good enough”

General I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communications of the 10th inst. in regards to horses for Rush’s Regiment Volunteer Cavalry – I have just seen Colonel Rush, in reference to the matter, he is entirely satisfied that Horses suitable for Cavalry, cannot be procured at a less price than $135.00 each, that such horses as are offered for $120 are actually dearer than horse he can procure, and would accept at $140 – In all this is entirely agree with Colonel Rush, I have watched this matter of horses pretty closely, and – know to a certainty that such horse as will be procured at $140 are cheaper to the government than any horse can possible be purchased at any place, for $120 – for Cavalry Service: Colonel Rush’s – Opinion in this matter entirely disinterested, he seeks no contract, and no profit arising from from contract, he is as free from pecuniary interest in this matter as I am, and in this respect of personnel interest, differs from most, if not all, the colonels of volunteer cavalry; I understand him to say, and believe him, that his sole object is to mount his regiment efficiently. The regiment can be mounted here and well mounted, on northern horses from Vermont, and the northern part of New York [which are the best and most serviceable horses] at $140 each perhaps at an average of $135 and I will take care that no other description of horses shall be furnished. Allowance to say that it is bad economy to mount men on indifferent horses, at any price, and that having the presence and deffering to the wishes of Colonel Rush at every inspection of horses, he cannot fail to be satisfied, nor can it very well happen that the judgment of both of us, should be at fault.

Horses are offering here and elsewhere as Kentucky Horses. I know that they are not Kentucky Horses. In 1853 I had to purchase for my own regiment 500 Horses – I did so a Cincinnati’s, Ohio, and the horse market there was filled with horse buyers from Kentucky, in expressing my surprise at this, they told me they had turned their attention to breeding mules as the most profitable, that nothing but the finer class of horses, and mostly of racing stock was raised in Kentucky, and that they found it more to their interest to buy at Cincinnati, their ordinary, saddle, road, and draught horses – The horse here represented to be Kentucky horses are from Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and every way inferior to the Vermont, and Northern New York Horses: I make this representation on behalf of Colonel Rush, because he really feels and express his desire to have a well mounted regiment, and of course an effective one. I trust his wishes may be gratified, and express again the conviction that such horses as he accepts will be cheaper at $140 than any horses that can be procured any where else for Cavalry Service. I believe too the average may be reduced to $135 – not lower – please reply at your earliest convenience by telegraph.

Source – National Archives, Washington D.C. – “Horses” 1861 / Box 839 – Quartermaster / Consolidated, Correspondence / File 1794 – 1915

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